Assessing the Role of Proximate, Fundamental and Sustaining Factors in Illegal Migration to Europe: The Case of Gujrat
Author: Meher Numan

This thesis explores the role of proximate, fundamental, and sustaining factors in illegal migration to Europe from district Gujrat, Pakistan. We use an exploratory research method to uncover the role of proximate, fundamental, and sustaining factors using primary data collected from deported migrants who previously illegally migrated to Europe. This study contributes to the literature by exploring the pre-migration push factors in which conspicuity of settled migrants abroad in the vicinity of the respondents played a vital role in the decision making while the majority of the migrants are not well equipped with skills and formal education. The analysis has shown that the majority of the respondents are not satisfied in their living area and with their living standards. The respondents have used a smuggling network to accomplish their journey. The analysis further reveals that respondents have limited knowledge of the legal visa process and visa policy of destination country. We find that, on average, the respondents pay around Rs. 0.589 million to agents as fee or cost for illegal migration to Europe. The government should introduce specialized vocational and language courses at the district level to eradicate irregular migration. Potential migrants must be financially supported through organizations and conventional banks. Good governance will also play a vital role in curing volatile sentiments of the deprived and miserable public. Supervisor:- Dr. Nasir Iqbal

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Supervisor: Nasir Iqbal

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