Zigzag Brick Kilns Technology; Cost, Efficiency And Acceptance Among Bricklayers
Author: Fazal Hayat

This study has analyzed the brick kilns sector of Pakistan, where two types of technologies are mainly used for the production of bricks i.e. traditional Fixed Chimney kiln (FCBK) and advance Zigzag brick kiln (ZZBK). ZZBK is considered as environment friendly technology while FCBK is considered as the most polluted technology used for brick production. Coal is mainly used as fuel for brick production. So this study has analyzed the brick sector by using private and social cost-benefit analysis to find out that either ZZBK or FCBK is economically and socially beneficial. This study also tried to find out the reason of failure in adaptation of new advance ZZBT for bricks production. For analysis data has collected from FCBKs and ZZBKs of Islamabad, Fateh Jangh, Tarnol, Rawat and Peshawar brick kiln sectors. For finding the reasons of failure in adaptation, in-depth interviews have organized with different brick kiln owners and Head/President of Brick Kiln Association of Fateh Jangh, Tarnol and Peshawar. The analysis has estimated that net private benefit of FCBK is 103.904 million rupees while the net private benefit of ZZBK is 195.548 million rupees, almost 92% higher than the net private benefit of FCBK. It has also estimated that 7038.29 tons of CO2 emissions are produced by using traditional FCBK, while 4575 tons of emissions are produced by ZZBK. The estimated social cost of CO2 emissions is 2.49 rupees per brick for ZZBK, while 4.47 rupees per brick for FCBK. The estimated net social benefit of ZZBK is 170.5 million rupees and 62.92 million rupees, which is 2.7 times higher than net social benefit of FCBK. On the basis of Private and Social cost-benefit analysis, it has concluded that ZZBK is economically and socially beneficial than FCBK, and also considered as cleaner, environment friendly, productive and energy efficient than FCBK. Lack of skilled labors and workers, lack of skilled kiln’ constructor, lack of inputs like electricity and land, and lack of financial and government support are the main reasons of failure in adaptation of ZZBK. This study has also recommended that government needs to encourage brick kiln owners to adopt ZZBK for bricks productions by giving interest free or low interest rate loans to kilns owners for installing or retrofitting zigzag technology and long term loans for business progression. also manage particle training session to kilns worker for better production. Supervisor:- Miss Saba Anwar

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Supervisor: Saba Anwar

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