Victims of Social Exclusion-The Case of Gypsies in Potwar
Author: Syed Jamshid Ahmad Bukhari

This research has been conducted on the social exclusion of gypsies in Districts, Rawalpindi, Jhelum, and Chakwal. It explored the social, economic, political, and cultural lives of the gypsies and analyse in context of social exclusion. Gypsies in Pakistan are institutionally the most unrecognised people in Pakistan. Although many researches reflected, their life through anthropological point of view but there was less focus on their exclusion and marginality. The Poverty, landlessness, citizenship issues and limited economic opportunities becomes a huge challenge for survival as it forces the gypsies to live in miserable conditions without recognition. In contrast to Pakistan and south Asia, the gypsies are present in books, literature and legislation as well and enjoying a relatively better lifestyle. This study has been completed mainly by using qualitative research methodology, however quantitative analysis i.e. frequencies of common themes, is also included. Data is collected through conducting in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and interviews of the key informants. Thematic analysis was applied to extract findings. The research gives a brief ethnographic view of the lives of gypsies while its essence resides in the analysis based on the context ofsocial exclusion. This research describes the position of gypsy communities in comparison with the mainstream communities by taking social, economic, political, and cultural aspects as broader parameters for analysis. Based on these parameters, the analysis showed that gypsy communities are at the extreme of exclusion and living like aliens within the rural and urban communities in Pakistan. They have issues of citizenship, fundamental rights, social acceptance, inclusion, and most of all the land entitlement. They lack basic needs provision and depend on local communities instead of state for their living and survival. Somehow, they have managed to maintain their ancestral culture as musicians, trick players as bander wala and reech wala, but this is rare and dying art of these communities. Although, ethnographic studies have been conducted on gypsies; but this research opens new avenues for research. With the application of social exclusion parameters looking at not just the lives and culture of gypsies but also to relate them to the surrounding world in 21St century and also suggesting options for their inclusion and equalising them to mainstream community without compromising the dignity of their culture and values. Supervisor:- Dr. Mina Zulfikar Ali

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Supervisor: Mina Zulfikar Ali

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