Valuing the Health Effects of Air Pollution: A Case study of Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Author: Kamal Ahmed Cheema

A growing ratio of the global populace residing in urbanized zones has created great pressures on local environments and in result has enhanced environmental pollutions including air pollution. Air Pollution, now a days, becoming a serious threat around the globe and particularly in urban areas, where it is surpassing national air quality standards for many air contaminants. There are number of sources including automobiles, agriculture, power generation and industry, which are responsible for air contamination. Population of Pakistan is increasing at very fast rate along with an increasing trend of migration towards urban areas has contributed a lot towards the intensification of air pollution. The industries, automobiles, power generation, motorized traffic, burning of solid fuels for cooking, burning fossils fuel in brick-kiln industries, open burning of municipal and hospital waste, heating, material for manufacturing of furniture, carpets, insecticides, tobacco smoking, home cleaning and air conditioners are main man-made sources of air pollution (Tanimowo 2000; Brunekreef & Holgate 2002; Zell et al., 2010; IPCC 2014). Air pollution can induce both critical and long-lasting health consequences due to high concentration of pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOXs), hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides (SOXs) and different levels of particulate matter (PM) in the air. Air contaminants such as particulate matter, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides tends to increase in atmosphere basically due to coal burning activities for energy purposes. Almost 65-70% of total global energy is consumed by coal (Haung et al., 2014). Supervisor:- Dr. Usman Mustafa

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Keywords : AIR POLLUTION, Valuing the Health Effects
Supervisor: Usman Mustafa

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