The Patron-Client Politics and Voters Behaviours: A Case of Rajanpur District, Punjab
Author: Khizar Abbas

This study investigates the patron-client structure and their impact on voter behaviors in the 2013 general election in Rajanpur of Punjab province. It evaluates the relationship of voting behavior s with ethnicity/ caste, religious sects/ peers, local issues, money factors, Patrons/Sardar, mass illiteracy, reconstruction and development, and election campaigns. The patron-client structure emerges in relations of ethnic/caste leaders, religious leaders/ peers and their followers, money lenders and their clients, landlords, and their tenants. The descriptive and explanatory research design has been employed to obtain the required sufficient information to analyze the impact of patron-client relation and its effect on voting behavior. The data collected from two constituencies NA-174 and NA-175. Each of the constituency consisted of 40 urban and 40 rural respondents’ wit combine gender segregation made a total of 160 respondents. It is found that less vote casting in male participants are inaccessible voting stations, laziness, and disappointment. Whereas the female voters have unapproachability to voting stations disenchantment (in that order) and apathy is the reasons for less vote casting. Even the people feel hesitation for giving remarks on political matters and there are fewer chances that their opinions influence other political workers. The social location of voters did not appear to be a defining factor for voting attitude as regards electoral contribution. According to respondents their participation in political forums and conversations are considered as a determinant for socialization and it influences performance of people. The results from the survey conclude that participants mostly make discussions on political situations with their family and friends as compared to other institutions. The findings of the study indicate that the different forms of patron-client relations – patrimonialism, clientelism, opaque procurement, rent seeking behaviour, and pork barrelling- have a significant positive impact on overall governance systempoor governance, corruption, and unfair civil service practice. Therefore, special mechanism and action should be developed to break the relationships and ties between the patron and client. Supervisor:- Dr. Karim Khan

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Supervisor: Karim Khan

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