The Door-step Conditions For Transition From Limited Access Order To Open Access Order: Evidence From Pakistan
Author: Saddam Hussein

Pakistan, despite experiencing much of economic and political adventurism still has not been able to break the ramshackle of the development enigma. The question that keeps surfacing is that why has nothing worked so far? The answer lies in the lack of understanding about the construction of its social order which is of prime importance. The human history can be categorized into three kinds of social orders. The first was Foraging Order which represents the characteristics of small social groups of early hunter-gatherer societies. Other two are Limited Access Order (LAO) and Open Access Order (OAO). In limited access order, political or economic opportunities are limited to privileged class; entry of a common citizen is deliberately restricted by the dominant coalition. In open access order, political and economic opportunities are open for everyone and are not restricted to any particular class, at least hypothetically. Now, for transition to happen from limited access order to open access order, there are three prerequisite conditions i.e. rule of law for elites, consolidated control over military and perpetually lived organizations. This study is fundamentally focused on exploring the existing social order of Pakistan. The study also intends to analyze the conditions of impersonality of intra-elite relationship, military’s role in overall dominant coalition and constitutional and organizational perpetuity; as development conundrum and political economy of Pakistan cannot be sufficiently untwisted without understanding the dynamics of its social order. This research employed qualitative research technique and relied mostly on document analysis and in-depth interviews from experts with diverse backgrounds, along with experts’ perception survey. The findings imply that Pakistan has a vast network of private and economic organization, but entry into this market is difficult and is often based on the political connections. Moreover, entry into political market for a common man is possible by the book, but it has been made very difficult in practical essence. It also infers that there are a large number of political organizations, however with the existence of a central authority. Government controls most of the organizations with violence capacity; nonetheless, exceptions are common. Hence, this study concludes that Pakistan falls in the category of limited access order. Further in limited access order, it can be classified as a mature limited access natural state. Supervisor:- Dr Karim Khan

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Supervisor: Karim Khan

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