The Energy, Output and Trade Nexus in Pakistan: An Empirical Investigation
Author: Muhammad Islam

This dissertation attempts to investigate the linkages between energy consumption, output and trade in Pakistan using time series data over the period 1981-2010. We have employed co-integration method to examine the casual relationship among the variables. The results have shown that in long run HOBC, diesel and furnace oil prices have a negative impact on energy consumption (oil consumption). In short run, we have found that the HOBC and diesel oil prices have positive impacts on oil consumption. While furnace oil prices has negative impacts to oil consumption. The negative impact of GDP on energy consumption shows contradiction to economic theory. This suggests that in short run the high oil prices can give high level of energy consumption but GDP and oil consumption has negative impacts. Finally it is observed that the causal relationship is running from trade to energy consumption. By using all of the three models the inferences are drawn, that in short run as well as in long run trade openness has positive impacts on energy consumption (oil consumption). In essence high level of energy consumption can be achieved on the cost of high level of trade openness. Supervisor:- Dr. Nasir Iqbal

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Keywords : ENERGY, Trade Nexus, Trade Nexus-Pakistan
Supervisor: Nasir Iqbal

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