Regional Disparities in Education: An Analysis of Rural and Urban Areas of Pakistan
Author: Hafiz Muhammad Adeel

Pakistan is suffering from severe educational disparities among provinces as well as within the provinces. Most of the educated people belong to federal capital and the capitals of four provinces. There are huge differences in rural and urban literacy rates of all provinces. The concept of Gini Coefficient is used to know the intensity of educational disparity in this study. Gini Coefficient of education is calculated on the basis of educational attainment data for rural and urban areas of all provinces of Pakistan from the year 2001-02 to 2014-15. Prior to Multiple Linear Regression, with the help of Two-way ANOVA (split Plot Design) and Least Significant Difference (LSD), significance of levels (regions and sub-regions) and possible determinants of Gini Coefficient was checked. Gini Coefficient of education was significantly different among the provinces and within the province. Study finds significantly higher disparities in rural areas than that of urban areas in all provinces. Overall disparity shows decreasing trend but disparity between rural and urban areas are not decreasing over the time. The gap between rural and urban disparity is lesser in the province of KPK and Baluchistan and higher in the province of Punjab and Sind. The results of Multiple Linear Regression reveal that Gini Coefficient of education is positively related to poverty status and unemployment rate while it is negatively related to gender parity and number of institutions. Higher return on education, easy access to educational institutions and a lower discrimination between male and female are the tools to remove the educational disparity from Pakistan. Supervisor:- Dr. Usman Mustafa

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Supervisor: Usman Mustafa

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