Money Can Buy Love: Contextualizing Love In The Zenana/khusra Communities Of Rawalpindi, City Kasur, Mansehra City, And Kot Radha Kishan
Author: Fahd Zulfiqar

In the context of Pakistan, the existing body of literature on male-female transgender persons has majorly focused on health-related issues of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS. Very few ethnographic research materials have gone beyond and explored the social and cultural contexts of not only STDs but also of zenana/khusra gender identities, their socio-economic organization, and their relational dynamics and reciprocities with their lovers (girya/s). This research has focused on these research domains for that the context-specific framework of transactional sexual relationship had been indigenized. Using qualitative data elicitation techniques (in-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation) and analysis (conversational and thematic analysis), this research has explored the importance of love to the lives of zenana/khusra characterized by meagerly rewarding survival options, socially structured marginality, and structural violence. Instrumentality of love-based relationships, commodification of love, trade-off between love and money, importance of girya for strategic needs to be fulfilled, and emotional proximities in the context of HIV/AIDS related risky behaviors are found out to be the main areas of thematic focus of this research. Supervisor:- Dr. Mina Zulfikar Ali

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Supervisor: Mina Zulfikar Ali

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