Labor Market Outcomes of Technical and Vocational Education and Training
Author: Muddasar Hussain


Technical and Vocational Education and Training can play an important role in the enhancement of skills of the labor force which are necessary to meet the demands of the labor market. In recent years the demand for the IT sector has increased. Upgraded skills of labor are essential to meet the demand of the IT sector. Unfortunately, in Pakistan TVET courses are not fulfilling the requirements of the labor market because of the difference between the quality of these courses in public and private institutes, especially IT-based courses. This study aims to compare the quality of education between public and private institutions and its impact on labor market outcomes. The study also aims to identify the difference in outcomes of public and private TVET institutes. To achieve these objectives this study draws on a mixed-method research methodology. For the qualitative part of the study, structured interviews were conducted with currently enrolled students in IT-based courses. For the quantitative part of the research, the survey was conducted through a questionnaire from graduates of IT-based courses. It has been found that public institutes face multiple challenges such as poor attendance of students, high student-teacher ratios, and accessibility of the institutes in AJK. In both types of institutes’ especially public institutions, students face a lack of exposure to practical work and apprenticeship opportunities. The focus was on basic digital skills without delving into more advanced modules. Limited access to labs and basic computer skill training were also a challenge. The quality of education in terms of the familiarity of teachers with concepts like work-integrated learning and demand-driven TVET skills is also an issue, especially in public sector institutes. There is no collaboration between institutes (public and private) and industry which is resulting in a skills gap and unemployment. Findings also reveal that 56% of the total IT graduates were unemployed. Additionally, a greater proportion of the graduates from the private institutes were currently employed as compared to the public institutes. Besides, about 34% of the IT graduates in both institutes who were employed did not get the job according to their skill sets. Notably, 28% of job holder graduates were getting wages less than the basic level of wages of 30000 PKR per month, and 38% of the graduates were getting less than 40000 PKR.

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Keywords : AJK, Information Technology, Labor Market Outcomes, Public vs. Private Institutes, Quality of education, TVET, Wages/Income
Supervisor: Muhammad Jehangir Khan

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