Issues and Challenges Confronting Pakistani Women in the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Institutes A Case Study of the Twin Cities
Author: Ramsha Masood Ahmad

This document is the result of the research conducted between Fall 2018 to Spring 2020. This thesis has discussed in detail the issues that are prevalent in the Technical and Vocational Educa-tion and Training sector in Pakistan. The research highlights the plight of women in TVET and tries to examine the socio-cultural norms and values influencing Pakistani women looking to pur-sue TVET as a career option. This research has tried to bring forth the issues and challenges women face when they join the TVET sector of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. A case study design has been employed, and cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi have been chosen for the research. I have con-ducted semi-structured interviews from different Units of Data Collection. This document has also analyzed all the primary data through Thematic Analysis. The study finds that despite exuberance among the female trainees to learn new skills which are valued in the job market, the performance of the TVET sector institutes leaves a lot to be desired. It has been recommended that the presently allocated government funding should be enhanced substantially not only to increase training opportunities for women as well as to upgrade the stand-ard of training, but also to establish governmental commitment. It has further been suggested that issues regarding the quality of instruction, infrastructure, harassment of women and job saturation for female TVET graduates be addressed. Supervisor:- Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Kalhoro

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Supervisor: Zulfiqar Ali Kalhoro

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