Impact Of Household Air Pollution On Health Quality: Does Women Empowerment Matter?
Author: Shahtaj Puri

This study attempts to explore the association of household air pollution with health quality which is then moderated by women empowerment. This study also analyzes the influence of socioeconomic status with women empowerment, health quality and household air pollution. Lastly, it investigates the impact of women empowerment on household air pollution and health quality. The data is obtained from Pakistan Demographic Health Survey 2017-18. The selected adverse health outcomes are acute respiratory infection, low birth weight, stillbirths, caesarean delivery, neonatal mortality, post neonatal mortality, child mortality and under five mortality. The exposure variable taken are polluting cooking fuel choice and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The socioeconomic indicators taken are area, income, education of husband/partner, household size and occupation of husband/partner. To examine the results a series of multiple logistic regression models are used. In Pakistan 44.28% households use polluting fuel and 29.78% household are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. The results of the multiple logistic regression state that both the exposure variables are positively associated with acute respiratory infections, low birth weight and post neonatal mortality but only neonatal mortality and total under five mortality are positively associated with polluting fuel. All the socioeconomic indicators influenced fuel choice and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke except household size which did not influence cooking fuel choice. Women empowerment also tend to be influenced by the socioeconomic indicators. The interaction of women empowerment with household air pollution reduced all the adverse health quality indicators except acute respiratory infections for polluting fuel and child mortality, acute respiratory infections and caesarean delivery for environmental tobacco smoke. To mitigate the effects of household air pollution on health quality government is advised to empower women through awareness programs and providing education. Supervisor:- Dr. Nasir Iqbal

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Supervisor: Nasir Iqbal

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