Factors Influencing Birth Spacing Across Different Income Groups In Pakistan (A Multilevel Analysis)
Author: Mehwish Kanwal

Identifying the factors that influence birth spacing among women who belong to different income groups is necessary to improve SBI because SBI is one of the major health challenges under the domain of mother and child health in the context of Pakistan. Several studies have been conducted in Pakistan to identify the underlying reasons that lead to short birth spacing/interval between consecutive births at individual level yet there remains a gap in terms of approaching this subject by involving contextual factors in analysis. The study attempts to bridge the gap by including community level factors along with individual level factors that might be correlated with Short Birth Interval. To conduct this study data has been taken from the Pakistan demographic health survey 2017-18 with a weighted sample size of 8999 selected from the source and analyzed subsequently to produce desired results. The dependent variable is average birth interval which is dichotomous in nature i.e. Short birth interval and long birth interval. Explanatory variables at individual level are mother’s education level, husband’s education level, age, contraceptive use, age at first birth, wealth status or wealth group of respondents and working status. Community variables comprises of community female literacy level, community poverty level and place of residence. For statistical analysis Mixed Effect Logistic Regression is used. The results of the study indicate that the percentage of long birth interval is 66% and short birth interval is 34% in case of Pakistan. The individual level factors such as mother’s education, husband’s education, wealth status, contraceptive use and age of respondents show statistically significant influence on Short Birth Interval. wealth status has significant influence on short birth interval as women who belongs to middle income quintile are 8% less likely to have SBI as compare to women who falls in low wealth quintile while women who falls in rich income quintile are 21% less likely to have SBI as compared to women who falls in low income quintile. Similarly, at contextual level, community female literacy level reflects significant influence on Odds of short birth interval. The ICC score (6%) calculated in the random effect part of the analysis confirms the influence of contextual factors and allows the application of multilevel analysis techniques. Women who experience short birth intervals not only depend upon individual level but also depend upon community level context hence public policies should be designed by considering individual as well as community level associates to reduce prevalence of SBI. Supervisor:- Dr.Rizwan-ul-Haq

Meta Data

Supervisor: Rizwan ul Haq

Related Thesis​