Environmental and Economic Implications of Fertilizer Application on Wheat: A Case Study of Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Author: Syed Hassan Bukhari

Agriculture is major emitter of GHG, Green house gases. Food security, growing population, technological advancement, organic and inorganic farming, all these facts are significant for irreversible anthropogenic emissions. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils are main concern with 310 times the global warming potential of (CO2) As they caused for the destruction of ozone layer and remains in the atmosphere with a time spam of 120 years (Crutzen, 1981). It is rapidly increasing with N (Nitrogen) application on agricultural soils accounted for 77% of emissions (Kroeze et al., 1999). Footprints of these emissions from agricultural soils are significantly observed during farm operations. It also harms national fresh water reserves. Out of total GHG emissions of wheat, 80% are (N2O) emissions (Woods et al. 2008). In our country wheat cultivation has a major share in agricultural land and farm operations. Our country is also a major wheat producer in the world. It remains most of the times in top ten countries study take observations of life cycle global warming potentials for wheat production as our primary goal to observe GHG using data driven model according to the guidelines of ISO 1400/44 standards. Fertilizer application and wheat production both are reported with significant increasing trends in past decades. Definitely there would be an amount of emissions which is must in association with on-farm applications, particularly with nitrogen applications. Our main objective is to observe FIE, fertilizer induced emissions for year 2017 in 1500 acres of land used for wheat cultivation in Faisalabad. It is 607.285 hectares. Study use this methodology by taking last crop harvest to current investigated crop harvest phase as full crop period for on- farm activities to analyze green house gases by reporting direct emissions along with suggestion of mitigation to ensure environmental goals. As an environmental impact of onfarm practices, equivalent of 90681.2 kg and 91050.91 kg of CO2 were emitted during full crop period of one hectare area used for wheat cultivation. Study found a clear lack of Nitrogen use efficiency, which insures a balanced application of mixed nitrogen from organic and inorganic ways according to the rate of soil demand for nitrogen. It is significantly reported better for environment and reduces emissions with increased yield level and protein content if compared with current scenario. Carbon emissions are also observed as most significant for air polluter. While nitrous oxide emissions and nitrogen applications are significantly reported for both land and air degradation. We cannot bear the same ongoing emitting trend from current observed applications to meet sustainability concerns. Supervisor:- Dr. Anwar Shah

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Supervisor: Anwar Shah

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