Doorstep Conditions For Transition: Evidence From Arab Spring
Author: Nafeesa Gul

In 2010, several long standing authoritarian regimes in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) were jolted by the self-immolation of a Tunisian seller Mohammed Bouazizi. This incident actually reflected the malaise of the Tunisian youth and ignited a wave of strong demonstrations in six countries of the MENA region; Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Syria and Yemen and small scale protests in Jordan and Gulf states. The series of anti-government protests and demonstrations came to be known as “Arab Spring.” Arab Spring is a combination of two words; spring, a season which is a universal symbol of new life, growth, fresh beginning and hope and Arab, an ethnic name. So in metaphoric terms, Arab Spring was used for the expected blooming of democracy after a long dark period of winter (autocratic regimes). Words like “Rebellion,” “Uprisings,” or “Revolution,” have also been used by media (regional and international) for protests. History is replete with examples of social movements that changed societies: the Russian Revolution of 1917 which ended Tsarist autocracy, the removal of monarchy and establishment of republic in French Revolution of 1789-1799, the American Revolutionary War which was a conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its North-American colonies that ultimately declared themselves United States of America (USA), War of Liberation in China which resulted abolished the imperial system there, and Spring of nations in Europe with a motive to remove feudal structures throughout Europe. Though these revolutions differed in their ideologies but all of them brought drastic changes in socioeconomic and political structures of respective countries. Supervisor:- Dr. Karim Khan

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Keywords : Arab Spring, Conditions from Transactions
Supervisor: Karim Khan

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