Virtual Water Trade and Its Implications for Pakistan’s Agriculture Sector
Author: Rasheed Rehan

This study analyzes the virtual water (content) embedded in major crops and fruits in Pakistan. It can help to identify crops that need relatively less water, hence provide insight for future planning. Identification of water contents may be used to understand water requirements and usage in different crop production. Furthermore, it may be used as a policy tool for better water management as well as open avenues for further detailed studies. It also helps to identify those crops which may be produced locally with less water consumption as well as identify those crops which needs to be imported due to higher water contents in them. For analysis three crops were chosen including wheat, sugarcane and rice. The fruits included in the analysis are mangoes, oranges and apples, while the vegetables covered are potatoes and onions. Data used for the analysis are secondary in nature. Data required foremost were the water crop requirement for each crop, production, yield and harvested area. The data on import and export of each crop were also essential to determine virtual water content. Results of the study indicate that the water use for each crop has risen over time. Pakistan is a net virtual water exporter with yearly average of about 134 km3. The rise in water net export is due to increase in scale of production for export purposes. The gap between virtual water import and virtual water export is increasing with each passing year. The virtual water export has risen steadily while virtual water imports have more fluctuating trend. These fluctuations come across due to increase in imports as well as fluctuating crops production within country. Supervisor:- Dr. Zafar Mahmood

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Keywords : Agriculture sector, Pakistan, Water Trade
Supervisor: Zafar Mahmood

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