Theory and Practice of Understanding Corruption in Pakistan Case Study of National Accountability Bureau, KPK
Author: Asif Ali

The factors of governance and good governance are pivotal for social and economic development. However, these factors seem dilapidated in Pakistan, as the image of Pakistan is bad in the comity of nations. Corruption is generally the plausible output of such conditions. For being rampant in the country, acceptability toward corruption has increased over time. This thesis focuses on the theory and practice of understanding corruption in the country with specific reference to anti-corruption agency in the country. The central research question this study deals with is: How corruption is perceived in Pakistan and which types of corruption are prevalent and how these are prosecuted in Pakistan? In order to answer this central research question, data were collected through semistructured interviews with National Accountability Bureau and studying policy documents. With respect to understanding of corruption among officers, it was revealed that many officers lack proper understanding of the phenomenon, and their knowledge was also limited regarding understanding of corruption within their department. In addition to that many officers explained the phenomenon in term of recovering the public money that was looted by corrupt people. Furthermore, the officer were indifferent on definitions of integrity violations and corruption, as sometimes the definition of corruption was described too broad, and other times too narrowly. With respect to most and least frequent types of corruption, it was revealed that since the mandate of organization is to recover the looted money of the public, therefore illegal monetary benefits and illegal use of authority are considered among the major forms of corruption. With specific reference to NAB-KP, most of the cases involve land revenue, departmental complaints related to construction of roads, fraud in mudariba based on cheating public at large. With respect to least recurring types of corruption in NAB-KP, the issuance of Statutory Regulatory Ordinance (SRO) is considered as least occurring. The research shows different reasons behind the prevalence and mechanisms for its curtailment. At the end this research suggests some policy recommendations and further directions for future research in the field. Supervisor:- Dr. Muhammad Jehangir Khan

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Keywords : CORRUPTION, economic development, Pakistan
Supervisor: Muhammad Jehangir Khan

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