Spousal Occupation and Antenatal Health Care Utilization: A District Level Determinant Analysis for Pakistan
Author: Alliya Rehan

The paramount concern ofthis study is to identifies the relationships between spousal nature of occupations and employment and prenatal health care utilization in Pakistan. These relationships are witnessed through two way 1) Individual level analysis 2) District level analysis. Individual level analysis is also known as the local level analysis in which the research population typically is an individual in the social setting or a small group of individuals in a particular social context. Examples of this level of analysis include, but are not limited to, marriage, families, households, neighborhoods, etc. On the other hand, the district level analysis is based on the locations and administrative boundaries. It is vital because of decentralization ofpolicy formation from Central to provincial level and further to district levels. Data have been collected from PSLM (2012-2013) and district level data has been collected from aforementioned source and provincial development statistics. The estimated results obtained from binary and multinomial logit models makeit evident that age and education of female, gender of head, education of husband and head of the family, dependency ratio, and assets of the households are found significant determinants ofprenatal health care. Specifically, the central concerned variables nature of occupation (highly Skilled, skilled, unskilled workers), nature of employment (unpaid family worker, selfemployed, own cultivator, sharecropper, and contact cultivator), and labor force participation (employed. Unemployed, and inactive workers), and finally sector of employment (agriculture, mining, industry, and services) are found significantly affecting the likelihoodto utilize prenatal health care services. It indicated occupational and employment related differences affect the health care services. Especially workers who are indulged in agriculture sector have been found disadvantageous as compare to others in utilization of antenatal health care services in Pakistan. From district level analysis, female empowerment related indicators (i.e. female ratio to male, literacy rate of female, non-prevalence of violence and health facilities available in districts are found significant factors in determining prenatal health care. Similar to microanalysis workers indulge in agriculture sector in a district are found having less prenatal health care than that of non-agriculture sector. Supervisor:- Dr. Shujaat Farooq

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Supervisor: Shujaat Farooq

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