Locating Livelihood Patterns of Wahi Pandhi within Three Interpenetrating Modes of Production: A Marxist Analysis
Author: Kashif

This dissertation focuses on locating livelihood patterns and its transition as result of technological and economic advancement in village of Wahi Pandhi, District Dadu, Sindh, Pakistan. The premise of observation is modes of production i.e. pastoral, subsistence agriculture and capitalist market economy. The fieldwork is conducted using qualitative research strategy and the techniques were ethnographic study, participant observation, focus group discussions, and semi and unstructured interviews based data collection. Furthermore, this research is thick description of social structure of village and its economy with local/emic perspective. Though, historically looking at modes of productions of Wahi Pandhi, I analyzes the development of forces and relations of production within theoretical framework of classical Marxism. In similar vein, livelihood patterns which are found among three modes of production i.e. pastoralist, subsistence agriculture and capitalist (market economy) located under theoretical consideration of historical materialism. In order to interpret historical development and modern technological effects on overall social, political and cultural aspects of village. Firstly we find that three modes of production are neither independent nor isolated, they depend on nature and are interpenetrating in social environment of village where study was carried out. Secondly, the change in livelihood patterns and division of labour put local identity in crisis. Therefore, in chapter seven we adds dimension of identity on struction in Marxist analysis. The identity of local people also plays significant role at superstructure level and at the base respectively. Then, we add that in analysis of class relation and class structure of Wahi Pandhi. Thirdly, the dominant mode of production in region (under study) is agriculture and subordinate mode of production is pastoralism. Pastoralism as being distinct mode of production because of the forces of production at the base are different than agriculture and market mode of production. Key Terms: Agriculture, Modes of Production, Marxism, Market Economy, Pastoralism, Supervisor:- Dr. Karim Khan

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Keywords : Agriculture, Market Economy, Marxism, Modes of Production, Pastoralism
Supervisor: Karim Khan

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