Impact Of Non-international Armed Conflict On Female Education In Pakistan: Case Study Of District Swat
Author: Saeeda Khan

During 2007 and 2009, two military operations took place in District Swat against the rising militancy and violence in the region. Female education remained the major targets on the militants plan in Swat. The conflict led to immense destruction of education sector, the destruction was not only confined to the damage of infrastructure or tremendous material loss, but actually a huge setback to development, growth and overall progress of education sector. This study aims to examine the negative effects of the exposure to conflict on female educational attainment in district Swat. To this end, three tehsils namely Matta, Kabal and Khawazakhela was selected purposively as they were bottleneck for many other tehsils where conflict was highly rooted. Further in each tehsil the most effected Union council was selected. For data collection, structured questionnaires were administered to the randomly selected sample of 350 respondents, consisting of literate female, from the sampled area. The results indicate that exposure to the conflict had a negative effect on female education; girls enrolled in secondary education during the time of conflict are highly effected as compared to the girls enrolled in primary education. Further, school destruction and threatening the school administration was perceived the most persistent type of violence against the female education. Thus this conflict has created negative disparities in the educational attainment of women and has led to one to three years gap in educational years of the girls. The government of the state should have to develop certain programs on education during emergency. Along with it the local government has to provide funds to the education sector and strict safety to the educational institutes. Supervisor:- Dr. Anwar Hussain

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Keywords : Female Education, Non-international Armed Conflict, Non-International Armed Conflict-Pakistan, Sawat-Pakistan
Supervisor: Anwar Hussain

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