Exploring The Demand For Shadow Education In Pakistan: A Case Study Of Islamabad
Author: Sajjad Yousaf

The education sector is being accompanied with shadow education described as private tuition. Existing parallel to formal education system, private tuition serves supplement additional coaching off-the-school hours. Tuition is a substitute to students’ efforts to regular schooling. Private tuition is spread geographically across the World including South Asia. The existence of shadow education in a state or education system curtails social inequality and points to institutional failures as well as poses explicit and implicit costs to its consumers. Both developed and developing countries devised some policies about private tuition. In Pakistan, private tuition has seemingly remained unnoticed by the policy makers and academia. This research, employing qualitative research methods probes the consumers of the tuition (students and parents) and explores the phenomena of tuition. Respondents of research included students (both public and private schools) and parents drawn from registered private academies of the Capital City of Pakistan, Islamabad. The analyzed data from the students and their parents representing public and private schools indicated overcrowded class rooms, individual attention, board exams preparation, teacher’s absenteeism and dedication as the key indicators motivating them for tuition. Parents as heads/guardians of their children indicated immense trust deficit on public schools as the reason to choose tuition for their children. Supervisor:- Dr Usman Ahmad

Meta Data

Supervisor: Usman Ahmad

Related Thesis​