Educational Inequality in KPK: An Inter and Intra-District Analysis
Author: Ali Rehman Waheed

This study presents estimates of educational inequality for all the districts and sub-districts of KPK, Pakistan using the widely established indicator of educational inequality. For this purpose, Education Gini Index based on educational attainments levels have been computed from 2004-2005 to 2014-2015 by using the survey data of PSLM. The findings indicate vast range of educational inequality exists at inter and intra-district level of KPK. High value of Education Gini Index in urban areas of districts indicates urban-rural educational inequality within each district. Although inequalities have been declined during the given time period, but still extent is very high. Furthermore, in the context of educational inequality, the study indicates that the top five educationally developed districts in term of education attainments are: Haripur, Abbottabad, Manshera, Chitral, and Karak, and the top five educationally deprived districts are: Tor Ghar, Kohsitan, Batagram, Shangla and Bunair. There exits an inverse relationship between average year of schooling and the Education Gini Index (educational inequality), which indicates that moving any person out of illiteracy improves education attainment that would lead towards educational equality. This study also investigates the processes and beliefs that are driving the trends of educational inequality through in-depth stakeholder interviews in two district of KPK at opposite ends of educational inequality spectrum; Abbottabad and Bunair. Considering primary and secondary education is the foundation of the pyramid of education and constitutional right of every citizen regardless of location, this study concludes that parents and society are the foremost contributing factor for low school enrolment within KPK. Study also concludes that different initiatives are being taken by the KPK government to maximize school enrollment but there is need to do more, especially for educationally backward districts and areas. Supervisor:- Dr. Usman Qadir

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Supervisor: Usman Qadir

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