Economic Burden Of The Cardiovascular Disease In Rawalpindi: Patient Perspective
Author: Kainat Jahangir

A cardiovascular disease is defined as condition of heart and blood vessels. They are now the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in worldwide, that effecting men and women equally. It has not only social and health consequences but also has bad economic impacts on individuals, families, health systems and society as well So they have to bear huge economic cost in terms of direct (out of pocket expenditures) and indirect (loss of productivity) also by pushing them into the poverty trap because the individuals with Coronary Heart Disease have to spend high proportion of their income on treatment of these disease. All risk factor such as obesity ,hypertension, lack of physical activity, smoking, high blood pressure leads to coronary heart disease and individuals bear a huge cost both through direct medical expenses and indirect in terms of loss of productivity. The burden of Coronary Heart Disease is not only on the individual but it is also on society as well. So this huge burden also decreases the quality of life and lowers the life expectancy by increasing mortality This study also concluded that due to increase of direct cost patients can be bear huge amount of economic burden and pay by their out of pocket. However, the increasing incidence of the coronary heart disease in our society it is essential to asses and evaluate all these risk factors at national level, it will enable us in formulating policies for promoting healthy lifestyles, frequent and early risk assessment and age specific preventive strategies. Supervisor:- Dr. Muhammad Nasir

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Supervisor: Muhammad Nasir

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